Wednesday, August 26, 2009

Recipe #12: Kenkey (Ghana's challenge to polenta)

I've posted before about the steamed fermented corn dough ball in Ghana commonly called kenkey (aka dokono, dokon, kokui, tim or komi). Here are the directions for making it from basically the same corn dough used to make banku. Banku is very soft, whereas kenkey is steamed (or sometimes, boiled) to make a much firmer ball that can be sliced or served whole.

As with the
banku, take white stone ground cornmeal (as finely ground as you can find, but not the degerminated type, nor masa harina), and make a soured dough by adding warm water as described below. As with Ethiopian injera batter, the longer you let the dough sit, the more sour it will be. I let mine sit for about 3 days here in central Pennsylvania, which has a cooler climate than Ghana's.

Mix together 3 cups of cornmeal/flour this time (plus add a tablespoon of corn starch if you wish to make it a little smoother), and about 2 1/2 cups of warm water (use a little more if the dough seems very dry) in a nonreactive glass or ceramic container. Keep it in a warm place, loosely covered and stir well every day, removing any mold that forms on top or on the sides (but don't worry about
aflatoxins--name brands of corn flour will have been properly processed). Some people say that if you don't want to wait for the dough to sour, you can just add a teaspoon or so of vinegar to the unfermented dough and use it immediately, but I feel like that's cheating, and I don't do it.

I prefer Ga-style kenkey because I first lived in Nungua along the coast of Ghana, so that is the kind I make (I'll post on other versions, such as the the Fanti style, which has no salt, is steamed in plantain leaves and formed into a different shape, another time).

Making kenkey involves several steps:

Traditionally Ga kenkey is wrapped in dried corn husks, which are available where Latin ingredients are sold. Ghanaians abroad often substitute aluminum foil (and also use plastic wrap now, too) but in my opinion, though convenient, this is a mistake unless you have no other option. The foil does not allow the balls to steam in properly, and also you lose the wonderful delicate flavor of the corn husks.
Plus I worry about the transfer of unwanted materials from the foil or plastic into the dough itself.

Before preparing the dough for steaming, put corn husks in a bowl of warm water to soften for about half an hour or until they are pliable, pushing them under the water to make sure they are covered. You'll probably need 2-4 husks for each ball of kenkey. The 3 cups of corn flour used to make the dough should form 3 or 4 good-sized balls. To prepare the kenkey, first prepare what is known as the "aflata," in which part of the fermented dough is cooked with water, then added to the uncooked part of the dough before being formed into balls and steamed or boiled.

To make the
aflata, first mix 2 cups of water in a 3-quart saucepan with a teaspoon of salt (or less) and half of the dough, then cook the mixture over medium heat for about 10 minutes, stirring constantly with a heavy wooden spoon or paddle, being careful not to scorch or burn it. The dough will thicken in about 5 minutes, and by 10 minutes will be quite thick. If it gets too thick and hard to stir, you can add a little water around the outside of the pan to warm, and then stir it in to the dough.

Remove the pan from the heat and stir in the uncooked portion of the corn dough, mixing them together well.
To make the balls, Ghanaians would just hold the dough (about 1/3 or 1/4 of it) in one hand and expertly shape it into a ball by repeatedly tossing it up a little and turning it. For Americans like me, it's easier and safer to wet one's hands and use both of them to shape the ball, then place it on top of a good-sized corn husk, which should be softened by now (take one with no tears or holes in it) with the "fat" end facing the bottom.

Still holding the ball of kenkey and corn husk in one hand, place another corn husk over the uncovered part of the kenkey ball, making sure that it overlaps at least 1/4 " over the previous husk. Repeat the process if necessary until the ball is covered. Twist the narrow ends (at the top) of the corn husks together tightly and poke a hole in the topside
of the dough by pushing the corn husks apart at a place where they overlap), and push the twisted end into the ball of kenkey and cover it with the soft dough, then slide the corn husks back to the overlapped position. Do the same thing for the other end (this is trickier because the husks are thicker). My original 3 cups of cornmeal made 3 balls of kenkey. In Pennsylvania I simply put a steamer insert into a stainless steel pot with water and place the balls on top and steam them for about an hour, adding a little water as necessary.

In Ghana I was actually taught to put corn husks in the bottom of the pot and fill it with water, then boil the balls for a couple of hours, but I find steaming works fine for me.
When removing the balls from the pot (it usually takes mine a good hour), be sure to let them cool slightly before unwrapping them, so as not to burn yourself. They are best warm, but can be stored in the refrigerator or frozen and thawed. Classic accompaniments for kenkey include seasoned fried fish ( "kenan" or "kyenam," a recipe for another day), a fresh hot pepper sauce (also for another day) or the classic "shito" (coming up later, too). Kenkey and a stew or fried fish and pepper sauce is a great meal to eat with your hands, but kenkey is also often served sliced as a side starch.


AfricaLiving said...

Wow! Will have to try this soon. Can you believe I didn't have any kenkey when I was in Accra last month because it is almost impossible to get it the old-fashioned way, just wrapped in corn husks. Everyone has started wrapping it in plastic first, then sometimes, corn husks. Around Cape Coast, they are selling it this way too, then everything wrapped in a blue plastic bag. ugh! you should do a campaign about the possible leaching of contaminants from the plastic...Sometimes the old ways were there for a reason. People are even complaining about kenkey spoiling faster, and not tasting as good!

Fran said...

Thanks for the support. I, too, worry about the plastic wrap. And that's even independent of the trash and disposal issue.

MangoBelle said...

I enjoyed this post as it once again reaffirmed the connections between African and Caribbean cooking. We have conkies and on the island where I live (Barbados) and they are made by mixing yellow cornmeal, grated coconut and raisins, sugar and a little fat. Spoonfuls of the mixture are wrapped in softened banana leaves. The packages are then steamed. Conkies are not ball shaped;they are squarish.

Doucanou or ducana is a specialty of Antigua and Barbuda and there are several different spellings is made of grated sweet potato and coconut mixes with spices. While you can eat the ducana alone as a snack it is most often served with a salt fish stew.

Unknown said...

Hi Fran

Hope you are well! I wrote a feature on Kenkey. your blog came in handy as a resource. i have refered my readers to learn more about its preparation to your blog.

Feel free to link to it to add to your rather informative blog.


iamapreemiemommy said...
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iamapreemiemommy said...

Thank you so much for your recipes Ms. Fran: I made my first KenKey effortlessly! Please keep up the good work! I've read your entire blog at least three times now and plan on trying out most of your recipes.


Fran said...

I'm very glad for your success! I'll be posting again regularly. Computer problems, travel plans, and family have been responsible for a very quiet summer online for BETUMIBlog. Watch for more posts soon.

Nana said...

Thank you so much for what you are doing for the Ghanaian community. I searched for hours on the internet and yours was the only good site I got for Ghanaian dishes. I am a Ghanaian too and live in Virginia

Fran said...

Nana, thank you very much for your kind words. It's people like you who keep me blogging.

Sarah Noack Poetry said...

KENKEY! OMG YUM!!! Now I can actually try to make it on my own. Wow that really concerns me that people are using foil and plastic wrap. These are not designed for direct-contact cooking and yes they will leach LOTS of toxins. In addition, in Africa many people cook with aluminum pots (by default) and they are already getting an overload of aluminums which cause many health problems. BTW you can buy the corn husks at any Latin supermarket.

TheAmethystShowers said...

This is very useful. Growing up in Accra, we had a househelp who would make ours from scratch but sadly, I never learned. I have a question though, is there a way to use polenta instead of fermenting corn dough?? I'm a student and live in shared accommodation and don;t want to stink up the place.

Fran said...

Hmmmmm. It seems like if you simply use polenta cornmeal, you'll end up with polenta. If you really do not want to ferment the cornmeal (I've never tried using poltenta cornmeal, but I just ferment my corn dough in the oven so don't have a problem with odors), some people suggest adding vinegar instead, but it seems to change the taste to me. Good luck. Let us know how you make out.

Fran said...
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Fran said...
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Fran said...
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Unknown said...

Where can i get the Palenque type of kenkey leave. The one you used

Fran said...

Use any dried corn husk (usually sold to make tamales in the U.S.). They are used in Hispanic cooking. I think Whole Foods sells them, too. Probably any international market. Good luck!